Net Metering in North Dakota

Only 30 ft tall kicks in at 6mph and at 12mph produces 36kw enough to power 30 average homes

Net Metering

Last Updated May 26, 2017

Program Overview

    • Implementing Sector:

      State

    • Category:

      Regulatory Policy

    • State:

      North Dakota

    • Incentive Type:

      Net Metering

    • Eligible Renewable/Other Technologies:

      Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small)

    • Applicable Sectors:

      Commercial, Industrial, Residential

    • Applicable Utilities:

      Investor-owned utilities

    • System Capacity Limit:

      100 kW

    • Aggregate Capacity Limit:

      No limit specified

    • Net Excess Generation:

      Reconciled monthly at avoided cost rate*

    • Ownership of Renewable Energy Credits:

      Customers retain ownership of renewable energy credits (RECs) associated with the customer’s load, while RECs associated with NEG convey to the utility

    • Meter Aggregation:

      Not addressed

Summary

Eligibility and Availability

North Dakota’s net metering policy, adopted in 1991 by the state Public Service Commission (PSC), applies to renewable energy systems and combined heat and power (CHP) systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity.* Net metering is available to all customers of investor-owned electric utilities; it is not available to customers of municipal utilities or electric cooperatives.

Net Excess Generation

If a customer has net excess generation (NEG) at the end of a monthly billing period, the utility must purchase the NEG at the utility’s avoided cost rate.

Aggregate Capacity Limit

There is no specified statewide limit on the aggregate capacity of all net-metered systems.

REC Ownership

Customers retain ownership of renewable energy credits (RECs) associated with the customer’s load, while RECs associated with NEG convey to the utility (with compensation to the customer-generator).

Utilities may recover metering costs associated with production monitoring from a net-metered system.

* The North Dakota Legislative Council’s Committee on Administrative Rules has objected to the PSC’s provisions for net metering, asserting that the PSC violated legislative intent by establishing net metering. However, according to the PSC, net metering is currently available to qualifying customers in North Dakota.

Authorities

    • Date Enacted:
      8/9/1991

    • Effective Date:
      5/1/1991

Contact

  • Organization:

    North Dakota Public Service Commission

  • Address:

    600 East Boulevard Avenue, Department 408
    Bismarck, ND 58505

  • Phone:

    (701) 328-1035

  • E-Mail:

Memos

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    • 05/26/2017 by Autumn Proudlove

      Annual review; no policy changes.

    • 05/10/2016 by Autumn Proudlove

      Annual review; no policy changes.

  • 04/27/2015 by Heather Calderwood

    No changes to program policy.

Net Metering for Kansas

Net Metering

Only 30 ft tall kicks in at 6mph and at 12mph produces 36kw enough to power 30 average homes

Last Updated August 12, 2015

Program Overview

    • Implementing Sector:

      State

    • Category:

      Regulatory Policy

    • State:

      Kansas

    • Incentive Type:

      Net Metering

    • Eligible Renewable/Other Technologies:

      Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels

    • Applicable Sectors:

      Commercial, Industrial, Local Government, Residential, Schools, State Government, Federal Government, Agricultural, Institutional

    • Applicable Utilities:

      Investor-owned utilities

    • System Capacity Limit:

      Before July 1, 2014: 200 kW for non-residential and schools; 25 kW for residential
      on or after July 1, 2014: 100 kW for non-residential; 15 kW for residential; 150 kW for schools

    • Aggregate Capacity Limit:

      1% of utility’s retail peak demand during previous year

    • Net Excess Generation:

      Credited to customer’s next bill at the retail rate if system began operating before July 1, 2014 and at the average cost rate if system began operating on or after July 1, 2014; NEG expires on March 31 each year

    • Ownership of Renewable Energy Credits:

      The estimated generating capacity of all net-metered facilities counts toward the affected utility’s compliance with Kansas’s RPS. If a generator’s capacity is being utilized towards a utility’s RPS compliance, neither the utility nor the customer-generator may sell any associated RECs.

    • Meter Aggregation:

      Not specified

Summary

Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009, which established net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities (IOUs).

Eligible Technologies

The following renewable energy resources are eligible for net metering: solar, wind, methane, biomass, hydro, and fuel cells that use hydrogen produced by one of these resources.

Eligibility and Availability

All IOUs in Kansas—Westar, Kansas City Power & Light, and the Empire Power District—are required to offer net metering, and some electric cooperatives have voluntarily created net metering provisions for their customers. IOUs are required to offer net metering on a first-come, first-served basis until the rated generating capacity of all net-metered systems equals 1% of the utility’s peak demand during the previous year.

Eligible systems in operation prior to July 1, 2014, must have a rated capacity of:

  • 25 kW or less for residential customers and
  • 200 kW or less for non-residential customers.

Eligible systems in operation on or after July 1, 2014, must have a rated capacity of:

  • 15 kW or less for residential customers,
  • 100 kW or less for non-residential customers, and
  • 150 kW for any postsecondary educational institution or any public or private school which provides instruction for students enrolled in grade kindergarten or grades one through 12.

IOUs must provide net-metered customers with a bi-directional meter at no cost to the customer. IOUs are prohibited from charging net-metered customers any additional standby charges, capacity charges, interconnection charges or other fees that a customer would not incur if the customer did not participate in net metering if the customer began operating a renewable energy resource under an interconnect agreement with a utility prior to July 1, 2014. IOUs may propose (through a rate proceeding) an alternative rate structure for customer-generators who begin operating a renewable energy system on or after July 1, 2014. This includes a time-of-use rate, minimum bill, or another rate structure for these customers.

The estimated generating capacity of all net-metered systems may count towards the utility’s renewable capacity target under Kansas’s voluntary renewable portfolio standard (RPS) goal, with each kilowatt (kW) of nameplate capacity that is net metered counting as 1.10 kW toward a utility’s compliance with the RPS. Net-metered renewable energy used for RPS compliance may not be used to generate renewable energy credits.

Net Excess Generation

If a customer-generator produces more electricity than is consumed during a monthly billing period, the net excess generation (NEG) will be credited to the customer-generator at one of two types of rates, depending on when the renewable energy resource began operating:

  • For renewable energy resources that began operating before July 1, 2014, all NEG, expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), is carried forward from month-to-month and credited at a ratio of one-to-one against the customer-generator’s energy consumption, expressed in kWh, in subsequent months. This credit is equivalent to a retail rate of electricity.
  • For renewable energy resources that began operating on or after July 1, 2014, all NEG remaining in the customer-generator’s account at the end of each billing period is credited to the customer at a rate of 100% of the utility’s monthly system average cost of energy per kWh.

Beginning on January 1, 2030, all NEG will be carried forward at the utility’s monthly system average cost of energy per kWh, regardless of when the customer began operating the renewable energy resource. NEG remaining in the customer’s account expires on March 31 of each year.

Parallel Generation (Alternative to Net Metering)

Customer-generators in Kansas can choose to interconnect under a parallel generation contract with utilities instead of net metering (K.S.A. 66-1184). Utilities that provide retail electric services in Kansas—including IOUs, electric cooperatives (defined by K.S.A. 17-4603), non-stock member-owned electric cooperative corporations, and municipally-owned or operated utilities—are required to enter into a parallel generation contract with eligible customer-generators if requested in writing.

Under a parallel generation contract between a utility and a generator with a capacity of 200 kW or less, electricity exported by the customer-generator to the utility is sold at a rate of 150% of the utility’s monthly system average cost of energy per kWh, and any electricity imported by the customer-generator from the utility is purchased at the retail rate. Unlike net metering, electricity generation and consumption are time-sensitive and there is no “banking”. A utility may credit the customer’s account or pay the customer at least annually or when the total compensation due equals $25 or more.

System capacity limitations for entering into a parallel generation contract are 25 kW for residential customers, 200 kW for commercial customers, and 1.5 MW for Cloud county community college and Dodge City community college. A utility not obligated to purchase an amount greater than 4% of its peak power requirements.

Resources

More information on utility net metering policies and interconnection guidelines are available in the following riders:

Authorities

    • Date Enacted:
      5/22/2009

    • Effective Date:
      7/1/2009

    • Date Enacted:
      7/9/2010

Contact

  • Organization:

    Kansas Corporation Commission

  • Address:

    1500 SW Arrowhead Road
    Topeka, KS 66604-4027

  • Phone:

    (785) 271-3170

Memos

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  • 08/12/2015 by Ben Inskeep

    Annual review; no substantive change to policy

Net Metering in Montana

Net Metering

Only 30 ft tall kicks in at 6mph and at 12mph produces 36kw enough to power 30 average homes

Last Updated September 14, 2016

Program Overview

    • Implementing Sector:

      State

    • Category:

      Regulatory Policy

    • State:

      Montana

    • Incentive Type:

      Net Metering

    • Utilities:

      NorthWestern Corporation

    • Eligible Renewable/Other Technologies:

      Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Hydroelectric, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small)

    • Applicable Sectors:

      Commercial, Industrial, Residential

    • Applicable Utilities:

      Investor-owned utilities

    • System Capacity Limit:

      50 kW

    • Aggregate Capacity Limit:

      No limit specified

    • Net Excess Generation:

      Credited to customer’s next bill at retail rate; granted to utility at end of 12-month period

    • Ownership of Renewable Energy Credits:

      Not addressed

    • Meter Aggregation:

      Not addressed

Summary

Montana’s net-metering law, enacted in July 1999, applies to all customers of investor-owned utilities. Systems up to 50 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind or hydropower are eligible. No limit on enrollment or statewide installed capacity is specified. Utilities may not require customer-generators to comply with any additional standards or requirements beyond those established by the National Electric Code, National Electrical Safety Code, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

Net excess generation (NEG) is credited to the customer’s next monthly bill. The customer may choose to start the net metering period at the beginning of January, April, July or October to match seasonal farming cycles. At the beginning of the year — either in January, April, July or October, depending on the customer’s choice — any remaining unused kilowatt-hour (kWh) credits accumulated during the previous year are granted to the utility.

Montana’s electric cooperative utilities developed a draft net-metering agreement in 2001; this agreement has been adopted by most of the state’s cooperatives. Contact your electric cooperative to find out if net metering is available.

The Legislature passed a joint resolution in April 2015 to conduct a study on the costs and benefits of net metering, noting it is necessary to determine such impacts before moving forward with changes to the state net metering program. The Energy and Telecommunications Interim Committee reviewed net metering issues, prepared a draft report to the legislature, and has drafted several proposed bills to implement changes to the state’s net metering policy to be reviewed by the full legislature in the next session. Committee materials, including the draft bills, may be found here.

Authorities

    • Date Enacted:
      1999

    • Date Enacted:
      04/27/2015

Contact

  • Organization:

    Montana Public Service Commission

  • Address:

    1701 Prospect Avenue
    Helena, MT 59620-2601

  • Phone:

    (406) 444-6359

  • E-Mail:

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    • 09/14/2016 by Kate Daniel

      Annual review. The legislative Energy and Telecommunications Interim Committee reviewed net metering policy in Montana to recommend possible changes to the policy.

  • 05/21/2015 by Kate Daniel

    Annual review. Legislature passed resolution to study the costs and benefits of net metering